The St. Louis Metropolitan Research Exchange

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St. Louis Metropolitan Research Exchange

 

Economic Development
Compiled by Sarah Coffin, Professor of Public Policy Studies at Saint Louis University


»Books
»Book Chapters

»Journal Articles

»Government and Non-profit Research Reports

»Manuscripts, Professional Papers, Dissertations and Theses

»Self-published Materials and Student Papers

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Books:

_________. Economic development program: St. Louis. (1968). Palo Alto: California


_________. Urban land recycling and economic development policy in St. Louis, Missouri. (1975). Washington: National Council for Urban Economic Development.


_________. The reuse of tax delinquent properties : proposed development strategies for Land Reutilization Authority properties, the City of St. Louis, Mo. (1975). St. Louis: [Team Four Inc.].


_________. Economic development strategy recommendations for the City of St. Louis. (1978). Washington: The Associates.


_________. The states, municipalities, and economic development: big gains through small business. (1983). Washington, DC: G.P.O.


_________. The economic impact of museums and performing arts institutions: St. Louis Metropolitan Area. (1988). St. Louis, MO: Development Strategies, Inc.


_________. Economic progress through public education: a report on workforce readiness: public education and economic development in the St. Louis Metropolitan area with recommendations: final report of a Confluence St. Louis Task Force, approved by the Board of Directors on May 24, 1989. (1989). St. Louis, MO: Confluence St. Louis.


_________. Tax increment blighting analysis and redevelopment plan for the Scullin redevelopment project area, St. Louis, Missouri. (1990). St. Louis, MO: The Corporation.


_________. The community and economic impact of museums, performing arts, and other cultural institutions on the St. Louis metropolitan area: second in a series. (1993). St. Louis, MO: Development Strategies, Inc.


_________. Minority business development: opportunities and challenges facing the St. Louis region. (1994). St. Louis, MO: Confluence St. Louis.


_________. St. Louis Community Development Agency (1979). St. Louis economic development strategy: 1979-1981 work program. St. Louis, MO: St. Louis Community Development Agency


_________. National Council for Urban Economic Development (1975). Urban land recycling and economic development policy in St. Louis, Missouri. St. Louis: National Council for Urban Economic Development.


Bollens, J. C. (1996). Exploring the metropolitan community. Los Angeles: University of California Press.



Jones, E. T., & Baybeck, B. (Eds.). (2004). St. Louis metromorphosis: past trends and future directions. St. Louis: Missouri Historical Society Press.



Thelen, D. P. (1986). Paths of resistance: tradition and dignity in industrializing Missouri. New York: Oxford University Press.


Tranel, M. (2007). St. Louis plans: the ideal and the real St. Louis. St. Louis: Missouri Historical Society Press.

 

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Journal Articles
_________.  (1994). Metro Surveys: Nashville, TN; St. Louis, MO. Each of these cities is unique in what it can provide as a business location, and each is developing along its particular regional and economic lines. Area Development Sites & Facility Planning, 29(11).


_________. (1995). Growing The Regional Economy. The RCGA's Economic Development Division is working to generate jobs, facilitate regional business development and market the St. Louis region. St, Louis commerce : official publication of the St. Louis Regional Commerce & Growth Association.


_________. (2009). St. Louis workforce, economy strengthened by tourism. Nation's Cities Weekly, 32(18), 7.


  1. The article reports on the contribution of tourism to the development of workforce and economy of St. Louis, Missouri. The industry has contributed to the city by improving the quality of life of the city's residents through generating income and creating jobs. This fact led the St. Louis Convention & Visitors Commission (CVC) to receive the Exceptional Friend Award from Construction Prep Center (CPC).


Anonymous. (2002). St. Louis growing a new economy. St. Louis Commerce Magazine, 51.


Anonymous. (2004). 2005-2009 regional economic development campaign progresses. St. Louis Commerce Magazine, 10.


Anonymous. (2005). Advantage capital receives $50 Million tax credit allocation. St. Louis Commerce Magazine, 18.


Archer, J.C., & Reynolds, D.R. (1976). Locational logrolling and citizen support of municipal bond proposals: the example of St. Louis. Public Choice, 27, 21-39.


Archibald, R.R. (2004). Exploration inside. Economic Development Journal, 3(2), 7-10.


  1. The homogenization of America matters because of what it does to our spirits, nurturing our growing disillusionment with such places but also because of the impact of information-age technology on business and work. The number of businesses dependent upon a local market, local materials, and a local employee base has declined precipitously. The number of large locally owned businesses has also declined. Meanwhile, the presence of branches of large international corporations has increased dramatically. Instantaneous transmission of information hand in hand with virtual meetings of humans anywhere on the globe has nearly eliminated the age old constraints of geographically strategic business locations dependent on availability of materials, a nearby labor force and proximity to market. For many businesses and for many professions, such factors are headed for obsolescence. Increasing numbers of people decide where to live based on factors other than where the jobs are located. There is a burgeoning catalog of jobs that can be done anywhere and businesses that can locate anywhere. If old constraints of markets, materials, and availability of employees are less important to location decisions than ever before, on what basis will people decide where to live and to work in the future? The answer must be that people will decide where to live based on the life qualities they seek and the standard of living they can afford. Cities like St. Louis must reassess themselves and recalculate their assets.


Atkinson, R.D. (1993). Defense spending cuts and regional economic impact: an overview. Economic Geography, 69(2), 107-122.


Baumann, T., Hurley, A., & Allen, L. (2008). Economic stability and social identity: historic preservation in old North St. Louis. Historical Archaeology, 42(1), 70-88.


  1. Since the 1950s, the Old North St. Louis neighborhood in St. Louis, Missouri, has suffered population loss and disinvestment due to failed urban renewal initiatives, the construction of a new interstate highway that bisected the community, and suburbanization. Under the auspices of a U.S. Housing and Urban Development Community Outreach Partnership Center grant, the Public Policy Research Center at the University of Missouri-St. Louis partnered with the Old North St. Louis community to assist it in attaining economic growth, social stability, and a cultural identity through archaeological research and interpretation. Building off existing historic preservation initiatives, this partnership employed "true acts of inclusion" in developing with the community the major goals and the "questions that count." Archaeological work in conjunction with oral histories and archival research was used to strengthen the sense of community through development of K-12 educational programming, a local neighborhood museum, a video documentary, a published history, a website, and an historic bike trail. These products provided the tools to attract new residents, investors, and visitors to the neighborhood and served as cultural glue, connecting people to place. The project advances the concept of public archaeology by demonstrating how research and interpretation can be aligned with specific urban revitalization goals.



Bell, J. (2002). The downtown buzz. Mortgage Banking, 63(2), 60-63, 65-66, 68-69.


Bezold, B. (2004). Technology clusters in St. Louis. Economic Development Journal, 3(2), 50-53.


  1. Focuses on the economic development strategies and programs of Saint Louis to cultivate and capitalize its set of distinctive industry technology clusters in Missouri. Effect of the city's technology based clusters on the region's broader economy; Demand for a wide array of professional services and production inputs from local firms; Average salary of the city's workers.


Bruns, A. (2004). Missouri’s new direction. Site Selection, 49(2), 233-235.


Cloar, J. A. (2004). Downtown St. Louis reborn. Economic Development Journal, 3(2), 21-26.


  1. Focuses on the urban redevelopment and reinvestment of the City of Saint Louis in Missouri. Details on the decline of the population in the city; Launch of an implementation-oriented initiative to undertake a sustained and pro-active series of developments to restore and sustain downtown's role as a vital heart of the region; Details on the private and public investments in the city.


Coleman, D., Davis-Wellington, J., Fleming, D., Ward, R., & Williams, O. (2004). Welcome to St. Louis. Economic Development Journal, 3(2), 5.


  1. Focuses on the annual conference of the International Economic Development Council in Saint Louis, Missouri. Discussion of the cost of living, affordable housing, and access to world-class health care facilities; Details on the aspect of economic development; Improvement of the quality of life through philanthropic support of cultural, educational and humanitarian organizations.


Daly-Bednarek, J.R. (2009). Layer upon layer: public authorities and airport ownership and management in St. Louis, 1947-1980. Journal of Planning History, 8(1), 3-26.


Domahidy, M., & Ward, R. (2004). Economic development and the halls of ivy. Economic Development Journal, 3(2), 36-47.


  1. Focuses on the economic development contributions of universities to the surroundings and to the city of Saint Louis in Missouri. Details on the important role of urban institutions in propelling economic development on both national and local basis; Changes in the day-to-day operations of colleges and universities; Improvement in measures of stability and progress.


Downing, M. (2004). Incentives for economic development. Economic Development Journal, 3(2), 73-80.


  1. Focuses on the availability of a wide and effective set of economic development incentives in Saint Louis, Missouri. Means of reducing utility costs; Recognition of problems relative to fairness, consistency, targeting, and assuring a fair return on taxpayer's investments; Difficulty for public entities to negotiate a deal using discretionary incentives.


Edwards M., & Lawson, L. (2005). The evolution of planning In East St. Louis. Journal of Planning History, 4(4), 356-382.


Elkjer, T. (2004). The frontier this time. Economic Development Journal, 3(2), 54-64.


  1. Focuses on the of association of life sciences to economic development in Saint Louis, Missouri. Details on the entrepreneurial activity of creating new companies to commercialize the science; Costs of developing and launching of new drugs; Growth of the computer industry in the area.


Farley, John E. (2002). Racial housing segregation in the St. Louis Metropolitan Area,

2000. Edwardsville Journal of Sociology 2. online: http://www.siue.edu/SOCIOLOGY/journal/FARLEYV2.HTM


Fleming, R. C. D., & Leonard, L. G. (2004). Regional collaboration and economic development, St. Louis style. Economic Development Journal, 3(2), 11-20.


  1. Reports on the collaboration between the private and public sectors in Saint Louis to develop a unique collaborative strategies relating to economic and community development in Missouri. Provision of people with wealth of opportunities for civic involvement; Use of economic development incentives to transfer retail development from one municipality to another; Management of federal highway dollars


Garrett, T. A. (2004). Casino gaming and local employment trends. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Review, 86(1), 9-22.


  1. Casino gambling has become a major industry in the United States. Economic development, especially through increases in employment, is the primary justification for casino development in a local area. This article estimates the employment effects of casino gambling for six counties in the Midwest and southern United States using ARIMA forecasting models. The results suggest that rural counties that adopt casino gambling as a major industry experience significant gains in payroll and household employment. The effects are less pronounced in urban counties, partly due to the higher volatility of their employment data relative to those of rural counties.


Geisman, B. (2004). A renaissance in neighborhood and "main street" business districts. Economic Development Journal, 3(2), 65-72.


  1. Focuses on the rise of property values due to the demand for urban living in Saint Louis, Missouri. Quality of retail services in the area; Details on the campaign to ensure a comprehensive array of quality retail shopping and entertainment opportunities; Emphasis on the revitalization of the business districts in the city.


Goetz, S.J., & Debertin, D.L. (1996). Rural population decline in the 1980s: impacts of farm structure and federal farm programs. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 78(3), 517-529.


Goodman, M. D., & Monti, D. J. (1999). Corporately sponsored redevelopment campaigns and the social stability of urban neighborhoods: St. Louis revisited. Journal of Urban Affairs, 21(1), 101.


  1. Much popular speculation and scientific thinking hold that inner-city neighborhoods cannot be redeveloped in a manner that is congenial to a broad array of interests and people. Lower income and minority citizens are not supposed to find a permanent place in redeveloped neighborhoods, particularly when the rebuilding process is influenced strongly by corporations with a stake in the area being rehabilitated. This restudy of five neighborhoods in St. Louis suggests that government-inspired and corporately sponsored rebuilding campaigns can attract and hold people from different backgrounds, stages of life, and social classes.


Gordon, V. (2009). Perceptions of regional economic development: can win-lose become win-win? Economic Development Quarterly, 23(4), 317-328.


Hafer, R.W. & Wheelock, D.C. (2001).  The rise and fall of a policy rule: monetarism at the St. Louis Fed, 1968-1986. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Review, 83(1), 1-24.


Heathcott, J. (2005). Modeling the urban future: planning, slums and the seduction of growth in St Louis, 1940. Planning Perspectives, 20(4), 369-387.


  1. This paper considers the attempts by planners during and after World War II to forecast population change for the purposes of long term planning. St Louis is used as a case study to examine the social, economic and political contexts within which decisions about how to map the city’s future were made. At the heart of the problem is the adoption by the city of a growth model to justify a large‐scale slum clearance agenda at the very moment when the city was poised for catastrophic population loss. It is argued that planners allowed themselves to be caught up in the momentary crisis of a wartime population spike, ultimately ignoring their own frequent warnings about underlying trends toward population decline. Within this post‐war crisis of temporary overcrowding, planners made the critical decision to move ahead with slum clearance projects of unprecedented scale. Unfortunately, by the time their projects were complete, the city for which they had been undertaken no longer existed


Horton, L.Y. (1935).  An analysis of the St. Louis trade territory. American Marketing Journal, 2(4), 265-276.


Jones, T.E., & Baybeck, B. (2004). St. Louis Metromorphosis: past trends and future directions. St. Louis: Missouri Historical Society Press.


Krummenacher, W. S., Swanstrom, T., & Tranel, M. (2008). Regional system of greenways: If you can make it in St. Louis, you can make it anywhere. National Civic Review, 97(2), 25-30.


Laslo, D. (2003). Policy communities and infrastructure of urban tourism.  The American Behavioral Scientist, 46(8), 1070-1083.


Lemly, J.H. (1965). The Mississippi River: St. Louis’ friend or foe? The Business History Review, 39(1), 7-15.


Liu, B. (1971).  Impacts of defense expenditures on metropolitan economy: a case study on St. Louis. Land Economics, 47(4), 401-405.


Louishomme, C. (2003). Competing for growth: the exceptional case of gaming. American Behavioral Scientist. 46(8), 1104-1125.


McSawin, S.T. (1983). Where leveraging small businesses is a house specialty. American Bankers Association Journal, 75(4), 93-95


Miller, P.A. (2002).  The Economic Impact of Sports Stadium Construction: The Case of the Construction Industry in St. Louis, MO. Journal of Urban Affairs, 24(2), 159-173.


Monchuk, D.C., Miranowski, J.A., Hayes, D.J. & Babcock, B.A. (2007). An analysis of regional economic growth in the U.S. Midwest. Review of Agricultural Economics, 29(1), 17-39.


Morisseau-Kuni, Jean (2005). To market, to market….or not? Bridges, Spring 2005, 6-8.


Navin, J. C., & Sullivan, T. S. (2007). Do riverboat casinos act as competitors? A look at the St. Louis market. Economic Development Quarterly, 21(1), 49-59.


  1. Using monthly data covering 1991 to 2003 for the five casinos located in the St. Louis, Missouri, metropolitan area, the authors examine how the return to gaming, as measured by the payout rate on electronic gaming devices, changes as new firms enter the market.The clear timing of the new entrants into the market and the availability of monthly data allow the authors to examine how competition has affected the payout rates. They find that new entrants into the market have clearly reduced the hold rate (increased the payout rate) on electronic gaming devices and increased the return to gamblers. Given that the tax revenue from riverboat gambling is based on adjusted gross revenue (total revenue less payout), the decrease in hold rates and, therefore, adjusted gross revenue has significant policy implications for local governments, the majority of which rely on a single casino for their local tax revenue.


Noonan, E. A. (2004). The entrepreneurial spirit of St. Louis. Economic Development Journal, 3(2), 28-35.


  1. Focuses on the contribution of entrepreneurs to the economic development in Saint Louis, Missouri. Major source of job creation in the city; Role of small businesses in the community; Details on the economic stability and growth of the city.


Nourse, H.O. (1963). The effect of public housing on property values in St. Louis.

Land Economics, 39(4), 433-441.


Olberding, J.C. (2002). Diving into the “third waves” of regional governance and economic development strategies: a study of regional partnerships for economic development in U.S. metropolitan areas. Economic Development Quarterly, 16(3), 251-272.


Peirce, N. R. (1996). Transforming America's inner cities: real estate developer Richard Baron. National Journal, 28(21), 1161- 1165.


  1. Real estate developer Richard Baron praises Housing and Urban Development Department (HUD) Secretary for providing political power to replace failed public housing projects with mixed-income communities. The St. Louis, MO developer has an extensive 25 year record of success in creating such communities in St. Louis, Pittsburgh, PA, Cleveland, OH and currently in Atlanta, GA. Baron offers a number of secrets for success including designing developments that are indistinguishable from market-rate housing projects.


Porter, M.E., Habiby, A.S. & Lasala, J. "St. Louis: Inner-City Economic Development." Harvard Business School Case 704-492.


  1. Describes the history and challenges of the economically distressed inner city areas of St. Louis, a major U.S. metropolitan area. Profiles regional and inner city economics and describes a new effort by community leaders to develop and implement a strategy to revitalize the inner city economy.


Peters, D.J. (2005). Using labor-based industry complexes for workforce development in Missouri.  Economic Development Quarterly, 29(2), 138-156.


Post, S.S., & Stein, R.M. (2000). State economies, metropolitan governance, and urban-suburban economic dependence. Urban Affairs Review, 36(1), 46-60.


Reardon, K.M (1997). State and local revitalization efforts in East St. Louis, Illinois. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 551, 235-247.



Sanders, H. T. (2005). Premises and performance of headquarters hotels. Economic Development Journal, 4(1), 33-43.


  1. Looks into the meeting industry of the U.S. Rationale behind the proposal to establish a headquarters hotel near a convention center; Places where this plan was considered; Discussion of the mistakes made when developing hotels.


Sloan, G. (1984). Regional economic development in St. Louis: concept of innovation and research center. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, 187, 14.


Staenberg, M. & Herring, M. (2008). New beginnings. The American City and County. 123(22), 22.


  1. The article reports on the use of tax increment financing (TIF) in restoring the economic development of Chesterfield, Missouri after the Great Flood of 1993 devastated the city. Chesterfield Valley was surrounded by burgeoning suburbs to the east, north and south in St. Louis County and to the west in St. Charles County. Less than a year after the flood, Chesterfield began its restoration process, establishing a $75 million TIF district to fund infrastructure improvements, including buttressing the Monarch Levee, which was breached during the flood


Swanstrom, T. (2006). Regionalism, Equality, and Democracy. Urban Affairs Review, 42(2), 249-257.


Swanstrom, T., & Barrett, L. (2007). The road to jobs: the fight for transportation

equity and local hiring,” Social Policy.


Theising, A. (2003) Made in USA: East St. Louis: the rise and fall of an

industrial river town. Virginia Publishing.



Wievel, W., & Knapp, G. (Eds). (2005). Partnerships for smart growth: university-community collaboration for better public places. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, Inc.


Zhou, B. (2004). The rise and fall of St. Louis as a regional interstate banking center in the United States. Papers of the Applied Geography Conferences, 27, 430-438.


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Government and Non-profit Research Reports:


Carnahan: new access road will produce thousands of jobs; bring millions in tourism, economic development to region. (November 10, 2009). U.S. House of Representatives Document


Coffin, S. L.; R.W. Ryan, B. McCall (2010) An Evaluation of the Missouri Historic Preservation Tax Credit Program’s Impact on Job Creation and Economic Activity Across the State.  Report prepared for the Missouri Growth Association.  Saint Louis University, Department of Public Policy Studies.


Dooley, C. (February 25, 2010). House transportation and infrastructure subcommittee on economic development, public buildings, and emergency management hearing. Congressional Documents and Publications.

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Magazines and Newspaper Articles



_________. Governor Nixon announces initiative plan to bring more science and technology companies to Missouri. (2009, December 16). States News Service.


_________. U.S. Department of Commerce invests $250,000 to create jobs, strengthen economy in St. Louis, Missouri. (2009, November 20). States News Service.


_________. Out of the blue: our view of tax credit plan advances dubious policy based on false urgency. (2010). St. Louis Post-Dispatch.


_________. St. Louis developer gets $19M in tax credits. (2010, January 4). The Associated Press.


_________. Missouri senators cite $1B in cost-cutting suggestions. (March 24, 2010). The Associated Press.


Giegerich, S. (2010, February 19). Wheels are turning to revive Chrysler plans. St. Louis Post-Dispatch.


Logan, T. (2010, March 10). Northside tax credits went to debt: new program worked as designed, supporters say. St. Louis Post-Dispatch.


Service, S. N. (2009). Carnahan wins $817,000 in funding for job-creating flood protection project in St. Louis, Ste. Genevieve.


Shera, D. (2009). Strategic initiatives for a more competitive economy & an enhanced quality of life for the St. Louis region. St. Louis Commerce Magazine 5.


  1. The Board and staff will be creating a plan for the 2011-2015 economic development campaign to ensure that the RCGA remains fiscally sound, competitive with other regions, and a continued good steward of investor support. 2.\n Louis Climate Prosperity Project focuses on growing a green workforce of environmental services jobs, encouraging companies to capitalize on "green savings" by moving to sustainable business practices and generating "green opportunities" by creating sustainable industries. Metrics by which St. Louis will be measured are reducing greenhouse emissions (gross annual and per capita); promoting green savings such as reducing miles driven and total energy consumption annually and per capita; increasing green economic opportunities such as more venture capital for green businesses, clean technology ventures, and regional specialization in green products and services; additional environmentally-focused jobs; more buildings that meet U.S. Green Building Council standards; and use of more clean transportation and energy efficient standards.


Shields, Y. (2005). St. Louis area agency to price $150M light-rail transaction by month's end. Bond Buyer.


  1. Reports on the planned expansion of MetroLink light-rail system in Saint Louis, Missouri. Purpose of the multi-million dollar plan to pay for cost overruns on the project; Launch of a petition drive to put the bond issue to a public vote; Basis of structuring securities in a short-term, floating-rate mode so that the agency can easily retire a portion of the debt.


Shields, Y. (2007). Missouri: Ballpark village gets funds. Bond Buyer.


  1. The article focuses on approval of state assistance to St. Louis Ballpark Village project by the Missouri Development Finance Board. It reports that the aid has been given to the project for infrastructure improvements which include schemes for residential units, retail shops and office space for business purposes. It also discusses that the project will generate taxes, to be used for the repayment of debt. Also included are comments from the state officials and team members of the project.


Tim, L. (2009). China Hub budget stand-off ends. McClatchy - Tribune Business News.


  1. Nov. 8--For weeks, area business leaders have been leaning on Gov. Jay Nixon to find some cash in the beleaguered state budget for their efforts to bring Chinese air cargo flights to St. Louis. The Commission has reached deals with Chinese authorities to study air service, but needs to make a business case to airlines and freight forwarders that there's enough demand to support regular flights between St. Louis and China.


Trask, M. (2009, December 29). St. Charles County officials cut economic development funds. Missouri Lawyers Media.


Ward, A. (1999). St. Louis nears deal for bond-backed hotel to draw business downtown. Bond Buyer.


  1. Reports that Saint Louis, Missouri is expected to close a deal in February 1999 to build a partially bond-financed convention center hotel in the city. Efforts to improve economic development in the city's downtown; Use of public money to fund half of the project.


Young, V. (March 24, 2010). Nixon plans to slash tax credits: reduced amount would be divided among six categories with no more entitlements. St. Louis Post-Dispatch.

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Manuscripts, Professional Papers, Dissertations and Theses


Adams, H. D. (2005). Toward determining patterns of residential blight and blight mitigation in St. Louis county, Missouri.  Unpublished doctoral dissertation.  Saint Louis University, Department of Public Policy Studies.


Bauer, M. (2005). Retail opportunities in the City of St. Louis Master’s Capstone, St Louis University, Department of Public Policy Studies.


Brasfield, J. (2008). Sharing local sales tax: St. Louis County reform fifteen years later.  Unpublished manuscript. Webster University. School of Business and Technology.


Cropf, R., Coffin, S.L., & Adams, H.D. (2005). TIF funding: benefits to Missouri region? Unpublished manuscript. Saint Louis University, Department of Public Policy Studies.


Durso, C. K. Race still matters: growth and development of the St. Louis metropolitan area.


Glassberg, A. (2002). Military base closings and defense industry restructuring in St. Louis. Unpublished manuscript. University of Missouri St. Louis, Political Science.


Guehlstorf, N., & Coffin, S. (2009). The Use and Misuse of Brownfield Policymaking. Conference Papers -- Western Political Science Association, 1-33.


  1. Although brownfield policy is an innovative environmental course of action that has existed as a regulatory law for over twenty years, successful projects in some of the communities that need economic growth and environmental clean-up the most are infrequent. This case study analysis of Metro East municipalities in Metropolitan St. Louis suggests that brownfield redevelopment is a capable instrument of economic growth, but an inadequate apparatus for environmental justice. Despite the theoretical intent of brownfield policy as a tool for disadvantaged communities, the practical reality is that it functions in a municipality very similar to traditional economic development programs that are negatively influenced by impoverished neighborhoods, weak infrastructure, and uncertain security. Previous studies have examined brownfield projects in the context of economic decisions, focusing on differences between and within strong and weak market neighborhoods. This research considers brownfield policy from a political context, investigating why more brownfield redevelopment occurs within cities with strong political leadership and high property tax areas than communities that are resource-stressed and have weak administrative capacity. This study is essential as this analysis emphasizes the need to build more administrative capacity for brownfield programs within struggling communities as their redevelopment projects are more vital than remediation efforts driven by economics.


Hafer, R. (2002). Analysis of subprime lending in the St. Louis MSA. SIUE.


  1. There is a growing concern over subprime lending, defined as making loans to borrowers with past credit problems often at higher rates than available through traditional lenders. Several states now restrict such practices. Project will statistically examine subprime lending activity in the Illinois counties of the St. Louis MSA. The objective is to measure and analyze the distribution of subprime lending across economic and social groups. Previous work makes simple comparisons of subprime incidence with the income and racial make-up of an area. Using loan-origination data collected by census tract, the research will statistically test for independent effects of such variables as race, gender, and income. The analysis will determine whether subprime lenders unfairly target certain groups.


Hamer, J. (2002). Negotiating work and everyday life: labor market experiences and familial obligations of low-income black men in East St. Louis, Illinois. Wayne State University.


  1. This study is about black men, work, and families. More specifically, it is about the employment experiences of those African-American men who live at or below the margins of the workforce. The study focuses on those who have few marketable skills. These men most often work at or below living wage jobs, have more than one employer, or move regularly from one poorly paying job to another. Some have quit searching for legitimate means of employment altogether. The study looks at how these men negotiate a living and carve out a quality life for themselves and their families under increasingly dismal economic and social circumstances using a sample of men living in East St. Louis, Illinois.


Jarrett, D. S. St. Louis Union Station: contributor to the physical, cultural and economic development of St. Louis, Missouri.


Lamberg, A. (2004).  Evaluating interactive databases for optimal economic development in the neighborhood of covenant blu- Grand Center, City of St. Louis. Master’s Capstone. Saint Louis University, Department of Public Policy Studies.


Laslo, D. (2002). Studies of the St. Louis labor force. UMSL. Political Science.


  1. Project is developing a Workforce Information System providing primary labor demand data twice a year. This will be complimented by industry/cluster-specific studies (that will produce primary data) such as Life and Plant Science and Advanced Manufacturing. We also will be attempting to analyze the civilian labor force in the region in the coming year with the research goal of providing a profile of its skills, education, and experience. This will be complemented by a series of monographs with topics ranging from impacts of the Ford Plant closing to an assessment of the "diversity" of the regional economy. We are currently developing an analysis of the impact/contribution of selected industries in the region with the idea of determining the relative value to the region. The project also includes an analysis of the migration pattern of individuals in the region using IRS and Driver's License data. Analyzing the destination and departure points of migrants into and out of the region, the research will address the issue of the “brain drain.”


Melom, H. G. (1974). The economic development of St. Louis, 1803-1846: University Microfilms.


Moore, D. H., & Theising, A. J. (2007). Evolving Local Government Purpose through Economic Development. Conference Papers -- Midwestern Political Science Association, 1-31.


  1. Cities have long been involved in economic development work. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, large industrial operations used lax state incorporation powers to build industrial suburbs, such as East St. Louis, IL, Camden, NJ, or Gary, IN. Industrial suburbs have been shown to present a situation where market forces are maximized and public interest minimized. To sustain these arrangements, government catered to the interest of business with relaxed laws and policies particularly concerning taxes, zoning, and nuisance. At this same time, government began employing the use of special districts to conduct more and more of the public's business. Therefore, the work of government is increasingly being moved from city hall to these quiet phantom governments. There is continuing need for cities to attract business to ensure their sustainability. During the late twentieth century a new generation of economic incentives emerged in the form of various aid packages, such as tax increment financing. Now more than ever, cities are assuming entrepreneurial roles taking the risk that had been previously reserved for business. Industry does not need to pursue incorporation of plant sites anymore to provide desired financial and regulatory security because local government is now willing to perform that function. Economic development tools such as tax credits and tax increment financing are tools that often allow cities to gain a competitive edge, but are sometimes implemented at the whim of developers and operating beyond the view of the public. Large amounts of public assets are channeled to developers not necessarily at the initiation of government officials, but increasingly at the suggestion of developers themselves. The powerful new direction of these private-sector policy actors represents a shift in decision-making not fully examined by the current literature. These familiar economic development mechanisms still provide a varied set of place-specific incentives that focus on tax code incentives and regulatory relief. However, cities still remain even more at the mercy of business to reinvent urban cores with little ability to hold business accountable. This lack of accountability infringes upon government's purpose and results from government relinquishing its role in the economic policy process. Theising and Moore examine these shifting economic development issues in three cities over time, as well as the way they affect both policy outcomes and policy actors, through elite interviews, and content analysis of primary source documents.


Nagle, S. (2006). Dialogue for gateway futures: the gateway blueprint/LEAM modeling project. Unpublished document. East West Gateway.


Paulsmeyer, D. (2002). Advanced manufacturing: developing an approach for St. Louis.


  1. This project is an analysis of the how best to define and measure advanced manufacturing clusters involving an analysis of the literature. Funded by the Public Policy Research Center at UMSL, the project also examines existing studies that have identified industry clusters in St. Louis.


Sander, C. (2002). Women and economic development accounts. UMSL.


  1. This study examines the participation of battered women in economic education classes and an Individual Development Account (IDA) matched savings program. The program is administered through Redevelopment Opportunities for Women's Economic Action Program (REAP). The research (both quantitative survey data and in-depth qualitative interviews) is being done in collaboration with REAP and the Center for Social Development at Washington University. The study began in Summer 2002 and is expected to continue for about a year and a half. Qualitative interviews focus on the role of financial/economic issues in domestic violence as well as the women's experiences and thoughts about economic education and savings


Scott, S. C. (2007). Stationary Station-Area Development? A case study analysis of development around Cross County MetroLink light-rail stations in St. Louis, Missouri and policy recommendations for encouraging transit-oriented development.  Master’s Capstone. Saint Louis University, Department of Public Policy Studies. 

Swanstrom, T. (2002) Economic segregation in the St. Louis metropolitan area. Unpublished document. UMSL


Tatom, J. (2002). De-urbanization: the case of St. Louis. UMSL.


  1. The St. Louis region has an area of dis-investment that encompasses roughly a third of the central city of St. Louis, concentrated in the north side of the city. It also includes the greater part of East St. Louis. The research examines the resistances and potentials for development that exist within the morphological structure of property in de-urbanizing areas. It is conducted on two fronts: documentation and design. On the one hand the project maps the size, shape and configuration of aggregated vacant parcels and deteriorated buildings, documenting the form of de-urbanization. On the other hand, it examines the resistances and potentials that exist in the nature of land tenancy and the structure of ownership. The premise of the research is that the analysis and projection of the morphological structure, which includes the street and block layout, the parcel configuration, the building mass and the structure of ownership, are essential first steps in any scenario of change and formulation of policy, whether for re-densification or de-densification


Theising, A. (2002). Decision-making in industrial suburbs. SIUE.


  1. An ongoing examination of the effect of industry on local decision-making structures, especially as it pertains to the greater East St. Louis area. For this project, an extensive archive of East St. Louis primary and secondary material, images, and artifacts has been developed.


Theising, A. & Guehlstorf, N. (2005). Metro East tax increment financing. Unpublished document. SIUE


Tranel, M. (2002). The economy of metropolitan St. Louis. UMSL.


  1. The University of Missouri-St. Louis Public Policy Research Center prepared a report on the economy of metropolitan St. Louis. The report included an examination of the structure of the economy and its development over the past decade. In order to compare the St. Louis economy to other metropolitan areas, three groups were identified: 1. A factor analysis was conducted to identify those metropolitan areas most comparable to St. Louis; 2. A factor analysis was conducted to identify those metropolitan areas in the Midwest region that showed particular strength but were comparable to St. Louis; 3. A literature search was conducted to identify those metropolitan areas most noted over in recent years for their economic growth.


Vansel, T. (2005). Spatial mismatches between jobs and housing in the St. Louis metropolitan area. Master’s Capstone. Saint Louis University, Department of Public Policy Studies.